Zero Dimensional Simulation of Combustion Process of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Biofuels
A zero dimensional model has been used to investigate
the combustion performance of a single cylinder direct injection
diesel engine fueled by biofuels with options like supercharging and
exhaust gas recirculation. The numerical simulation was performed at
constant speed. The indicated pressure, temperature diagrams are
plotted and compared for different fuels. The emissions of soot and
nitrous oxide are computed with phenomenological models. The
experimental work was also carried out with biodiesel (palm stearin
methyl ester) diesel blends, ethanol diesel blends to validate
simulation results with experimental results, and observed that the
present model is successful in predicting the engine performance with
Biofuels Zero Dimensional Modeling, EnginePerformance, Engine Emissions
A Comparative Study of Page Ranking Algorithms for Information Retrieval
This paper gives an introduction to Web mining, then
describes Web Structure mining in detail, and explores the data
structure used by the Web. This paper also explores different Page
Rank algorithms and compare those algorithms used for Information
Retrieval. In Web Mining, the basics of Web mining and the Web
mining categories are explained. Different Page Rank based
algorithms like PageRank (PR), WPR (Weighted PageRank), HITS
(Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search), DistanceRank and DirichletRank
algorithms are discussed and compared. PageRanks are calculated for
PageRank and Weighted PageRank algorithms for a given hyperlink
structure. Simulation Program is developed for PageRank algorithm
because PageRank is the only ranking algorithm implemented in the
search engine (Google). The outputs are shown in a table and chart
Web Mining, Web Structure, Web Graph, LinkAnalysis, PageRank, Weighted PageRank, HITS, DistanceRank,DirichletRank,
An Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Pressure Tube under Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Heating Conditions in an Indian PHWR
Thermal behavior of fuel channel under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is a major concern for nuclear reactor safety. LOCA along with failure of emergency cooling water system (ECC) may leads to mechanical deformations like sagging and ballooning. In order to understand the phenomenon an experiment has been carried out using 19 pin fuel element simulator. Main purpose of the experiment was to trace temperature profiles over the pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) under symmetrical and asymmetrical heat-up conditions. For simulating the fully voided scenario, symmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by injecting 13.2 KW (2 % of nominal power) to all the 19 pins and the temperatures of pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes were measured. During symmetrical heating the sagging of fuel channel was initiated at 460 °C and the highest temperature attained by PT was 650 °C . The decay heat from clad tubes was dissipated to moderator mainly by radiation and natural convection. The highest temperature of 680 °C was observed over the outer ring of clad tubes of fuel simulator. Again, to simulate partially voided condition, asymmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by supplying 8.0 kW power to upper 8 pins of fuel simulator and temperature profiles were measured. Along the circumference of pressure tube (PT) the highest temperature difference of 320 °C was observed, which highlights the magnitude of thermal stresses under partially voided conditions.
LOCA, ECCS, PHWR, ballooning, channel heat-up, pressure tube, calandria tube.
Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Pressure Tube of Indian PHWR at 20 bar Pressure
In a nuclear reactor Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA)
considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the
heat transport piping system. In the case of LOCA with/without
failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurised Heavy
water Reactor, the Pressure Tube (PT) temperature could rise
significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of the heat
generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and
nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view.
Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate
ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs.
Experiments have been conducted by covering the CT by ceramic
fibers and then by submerging CT in water of voided PTs. In both
the experiments, it is observed that ballooning initiates at a
temperature around 665´┐¢C and complete contact between PT and
Caldaria Tube (CT) occurs at around 700´┐¢C approximately. The
strain rate is found to be 0.116% per second. The structural integrity
of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heatup
is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus
establishing moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs.
Pressure Tube, Calandria Tube, Thermo-mechanicaldeformation, Boiling heat transfer, Reactor safety
Surface Roughness Optimization in End Milling Operation with Damper Inserted End Milling Cutters
This paper presents a study of the Taguchi design
application to optimize surface quality in damper inserted end milling
operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves
additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The Taguchi
design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a
response variable can be optimized, given various factors, using
fewer resources than a factorial design. This Study included spindle
speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as control factors, usage of different
tools in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and
dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(3^4)was used;
ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors
affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was
determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and
signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the
Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for
ANOVA, Damper, End Milling, Optimization,
Surface roughness, Taguchi design.
Soliton Interaction in Birefringent Fibers with Third-Order Dispersion
Propagation of solitons in single-mode birefringent fibers is considered under the presence of third-order dispersion (TOD). The behavior of two neighboring solitons and their interaction is investigated under the presence of third-order dispersion with different group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameters. It is found that third-order dispersion makes the resultant soliton to deviate from its ideal position and increases the interaction between adjacent soliton pulses. It is also observed that this deviation due to third-order dispersion is considerably small when the optical pulse propagates at wavelengths relatively far from the zerodispersion. Modified coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-s equations (CNLSE) representing the propagation of optical pulse in single mode fiber with TOD are solved using split-step Fourier algorithm. The results presented in this paper reveal that the third-order dispersion can substantially increase the interaction between the solitons, but large group velocity dispersion reduces the interaction between neighboring solitons.
Birefringence, Group velocity dispersion,Polarization mode dispersion, Soliton interaction, Third order dispersion.
Single Phase 13-Level D-STATCOM Inverter with Distributed System
The global energy consumption is increasing persistently and need for distributed power generation through renewable energy is essential. To meet the power requirements for consumers without any voltage fluctuations and losses, modeling and design of multilevel inverter with Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) capability is presented. The presented inverter is provided with 13-level cascaded H-bridge topology of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) connected along with inbuilt Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM). The DSTATCOM device provides control of power factor stability at local feeder lines and the inverter eliminates Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The 13-level inverter utilizes 52 switches of each H-bridge is fed with single DC sources separately and the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used for switching IGBTs. The control strategy implemented for inverter transmits active power to grid as well as it maintains power factor to be stable with achievement of steady state power transmission. Significant outcome of this project is improvement of output voltage quality with steady state power transmission with low THD. Simulation of inverter with DSTATCOM is performed using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The scaled prototype model of proposed inverter is built and its results were validated with simulated results.
FACTS devices, distributed-Static synchronous compensators, DSTATCOM, total harmonics elimination, modular multilevel converter.
3A Distributed Method Algorithm for Exact Side Load Managing Smart Grid Using LABVIEW
The advancement of hybrid energy resources such as solar and wind power leading to the emergence of customer owned grid. It provides an opportunity to regulars to obtain low energy costs as well as enabling the power supplier to regulate the utility grid. There is a need to develop smart systems that will automatically submit energy demand schedule and monitors energy price signals in real-time without the prompt of customers. In this paper, a demand side energy management for a grid connected household and also smart preparation of electrical appliance have been presented. It also reduces electricity bill for the consumers in the grid. In addition to this, when production is high, the surplus energy fashioned in the customer owned grid is given to main grid or neighboring micro grids. The simulation of the entire system is presented using LabVIEW software.
Distributed renewable energy resource, power storage devices, scheduling, smart meters, smart micro grid, electric vehicle.
Fault and Theft Recognition Using Toro Dial Sensor in Programmable Current Relay for Feeder Security
Feeder protection is important in transmission and distribution side because if any fault occurs in any feeder or transformer, man power is needed to identify the problem and it will take more time. In the existing system, directional overcurrent elements with load further secured by a load encroachment function can be used to provide necessary security and sensitivity for faults on remote points in a circuit. It is validated only in renewable plant collector circuit protection applications over a wide range of operating conditions. In this method, the directional overcurrent feeder protection is developed by using monitoring of feeder section through internet. In this web based monitoring, the fault and power theft are identified by using Toro dial sensor and its information is received by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and controlled by ARM microcontroller. This web based monitoring is also used to monitor the feeder management, directional current detection, demand side management, overload fault. This monitoring system is capable of monitoring the distribution feeder over a large area depending upon the cost. It is also used to reduce the power theft, time and man power. The simulation is done by MATLAB software.
Current sensor, distribution feeder protection, directional overcurrent, power theft, protective relay.
Comparison of Zero Voltage Soft Switching and Hard Switching Boost Converter with Maximum Power Point Tracking
The inherent nature of normal boost converter has more voltage stress across the power electronics switch and ripple. The presented formation of the front end rectifier stage for a photovoltaic (PV) organization is mainly used to give the supply. Further increasing of the solar efficiency is achieved by connecting the zero voltage soft switching boost converter. The zero voltage boost converter is used to convert the low level DC voltage to high level DC voltage. The inherent nature of zero voltage switching boost converter is used to shrink the voltage tension across the power electronics switch and ripple. The input stage allows the determined power point tracking to be used to extract supreme power from the sun when it is available. The hardware setup was implemented by using PIC Micro controller (16F877A).
Boost converter, duty cycle, hard switching, MOSFET, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaic, soft switching, zero voltage switching.