Sediment Wave and Cyclic Steps as Mechanism for Sediment Transport in Submarine Canyons Thalweg
Seismic analysis of bedforms has proven to be one of the best ways to study deepwater sedimentary features. Canyons are known to be sediment transportation conduit. Sediment wave are large-scale depositional bedforms in various parts of the world's oceans formed predominantly by suspended load transport. These undulating objects usually have tens of meters to a few kilometers in wavelength and a height of several meters. Cyclic steps have long long-wave upstream-migrating bedforms confined by internal hydraulic jumps. They usually occur in regions with high gradients and slope breaks. Cyclic steps and migrating sediment waves are the most common bedform on the seafloor. Cyclic steps and related sediment wave bedforms are significant to the morpho-dynamic evolution of deep-water depositional systems architectural elements, especially those located along tectonically active margins with high gradients and slope breaks that can promote internal hydraulic jumps in turbidity currents. This report examined sedimentary activities and sediment transportation in submarine canyons and provided distinctive insight into factors that created a complex seabed canyon system in the Ceara Fortaleza basin Brazilian Equatorial Margin (BEM). The growing importance of cyclic steps made it imperative to understand the parameters leading to their formation, migration, and architecture as well as their controls on sediment transport in canyon thalweg. We extracted the parameters of the observed bedforms and evaluated the aspect ratio and asymmetricity. We developed a relationship between the hydraulic jump magnitude, depth of the hydraulic fall and the length of the cyclic step therein. It was understood that an increase in the height of the cyclic step increases the magnitude of the hydraulic jump and thereby increases the rate of deposition on the preceding stoss side. An increase in the length of the cyclic steps reduces the magnitude of the hydraulic jump and reduces the rate of deposition at the stoss side. Therefore, flat stoss side was noticed at most preceding cyclic step and sediment wave.
On the Fixed Rainfall Intensity: Effects on Overland Flow Resistance, Shear Velocity and on Soil Erosion
Raindrops and overland flow both are erosive parameters but they do not act by the same way. The overland flow alone tends to shear the soil horizontally and concentrates into rills. In the presence of rain, the soil particles are removed from the soil surface in the form of a uniform sheet layer. In addition to this, raindrops falling on the flow roughen the water and soil surface depending on the flow depth, and retard the velocity, therefore influence shear velocity and Manning’s factor. To investigate this part, agricultural sandy soil, rainfall simulator and a laboratory soil tray of 0.2x1x3 m were the base of this work. Five overland flow depths of 0; 3.28; 4.28; 5.16; 5.60; 5.80 mm were generated under a rainfall intensity of 217.2 mm/h. Sediment concentration control is based on the proportionality of depth/microtopography. The soil loose is directly related to the presence of rain splash on thin sheet flow. The effect of shear velocity on sediment concentration is limited by the value of 5.28 cm/s. In addition to this, the rain splash reduces the soil roughness by breaking the soil crests. The rainfall intensity is the major factor influencing depth and soil erosion. In the presence of rainfall, the shear velocity of the flow is due to two simultaneous effects. The first, which is horizontal, comes from the flow and the second, vertical, is due to the raindrops.
Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows
We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.
Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments of Gulf of Izmir
In this study, sediment samples were collected from four sampling sites located on the shores of the Gulf of İzmir. In the samples, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled, plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal concentrations were: Cd < LOD (limit of detection); Co 14.145 ± 0.13 μg g−1; Cr 112.868 ± 0.89 μg g−1; Cu 34.045 ± 0.53 μg g−1; Mn 481.43 ± 7.65 μg g−1; Ni 76.538 ± 3.81 μg g−1; Pb 11.059 ± 0.53 μg g−1 and Zn 140.133 ± 1.37 μg g−1, respectively. The results were compared with the average abundances of these elements in the Earth’s crust. The measured heavy metal concentrations can serve as reference values for further studies carried out on the shores of the Aegean Sea.
A Hybrid Artificial Intelligence and Two Dimensional Depth Averaged Numerical Model for Solving Shallow Water and Exner Equations Simultaneously
Modeling sediment transport processes by means of numerical approach often poses severe challenges. In this way, a number of techniques have been suggested to solve flow and sediment equations in decoupled, semi-coupled or fully coupled forms. Furthermore, in order to capture flow discontinuities, a number of techniques, like artificial viscosity and shock fitting, have been proposed for solving these equations which are mostly required careful calibration processes. In this research, a numerical scheme for solving shallow water and Exner equations in fully coupled form is presented. First-Order Centered scheme is applied for producing required numerical fluxes and the reconstruction process is carried out toward using Monotonic Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws to achieve a high order scheme. In order to satisfy C-property of the scheme in presence of bed topography, Surface Gradient Method is proposed. Combining the presented scheme with fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm for time integration yields a competent numerical scheme. In addition, to handle non-prismatic channels problems, Cartesian Cut Cell Method is employed. A trained Multi-Layer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network which is of Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) type estimates sediment flow discharge in the model rather than usual empirical formulas. Hydrodynamic part of the model is tested for showing its capability in simulation of flow discontinuities, transcritical flows, wetting/drying conditions and non-prismatic channel flows. In this end, dam-break flow onto a locally non-prismatic converging-diverging channel with initially dry bed conditions is modeled. The morphodynamic part of the model is verified simulating dam break on a dry movable bed and bed level variations in an alluvial junction. The results show that the model is capable in capturing the flow discontinuities, solving wetting/drying problems even in non-prismatic channels and presenting proper results for movable bed situations. It can also be deducted that applying Artificial Neural Network, instead of common empirical formulas for estimating sediment flow discharge, leads to more accurate results.
A World Map of Seabed Sediment Based on 50 Years of Knowledge
Production of a global sedimentological seabed map has been initiated in 1995 to provide the necessary tool for searches of aircraft and boats lost at sea, to give sedimentary information for nautical charts, and to provide input data for acoustic propagation modelling. This original approach had already been initiated one century ago when the French hydrographic service and the University of Nancy had produced maps of the distribution of marine sediments of the French coasts and then sediment maps of the continental shelves of Europe and North America. The current map of the sediment of oceans presented was initiated with a UNESCO's general map of the deep ocean floor. This map was adapted using a unique sediment classification to present all types of sediments: from beaches to the deep seabed and from glacial deposits to tropical sediments. In order to allow good visualization and to be adapted to the different applications, only the granularity of sediments is represented. The published seabed maps are studied, if they present an interest, the nature of the seabed is extracted from them, the sediment classification is transcribed and the resulted map is integrated in the world map. Data come also from interpretations of Multibeam Echo Sounder (MES) imagery of large hydrographic surveys of deep-ocean. These allow a very high-quality mapping of areas that until then were represented as homogeneous. The third and principal source of data comes from the integration of regional maps produced specifically for this project. These regional maps are carried out using all the bathymetric and sedimentary data of a region. This step makes it possible to produce a regional synthesis map, with the realization of generalizations in the case of over-precise data. 86 regional maps of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean have been produced and integrated into the world sedimentary map. This work is permanent and permits a digital version every two years, with the integration of some new maps. This article describes the choices made in terms of sediment classification, the scale of source data and the zonation of the variability of the quality. This map is the final step in a system comprising the Shom Sedimentary Database, enriched by more than one million punctual and surface items of data, and four series of coastal seabed maps at 1:10,000, 1:50,000, 1:200,000 and 1:1,000,000. This step by step approach makes it possible to take into account the progresses in knowledge made in the field of seabed characterization during the last decades. Thus, the arrival of new classification systems for seafloor has improved the recent seabed maps, and the compilation of these new maps with those previously published allows a gradual enrichment of the world sedimentary map. But there is still a lot of work to enhance some regions, which are still based on data acquired more than half a century ago.
An Assessment of Water and Sediment Quality of the Danube River: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trace Metals
Water and sediment samples from the Danube River and Moson Danube Arm (Hungary) have been collected and analyzed for contamination by 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight trace metal(loid)s (As, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Hg and Zn) in the period of 2014-2015. Moreover, the trace metal(loid) concentrations were measured in the Rába and Marcal rivers (parts of the tributary system feeding the Danube). Total PAH contents in water were found to vary from 0.016 to 0.133 µg/L and concentrations in sediments varied in the range of 0.118 mg/kg and 0.283 mg/kg. Source analysis of PAHs using diagnostic concentration ratios indicated that PAHs found in sediments were of pyrolytic origins. The dissolved trace metal and arsenic concentrations were relatively low in the surface waters. However, higher concentrations were detected in the water samples of Rába (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb) and Marcal (As, Cu, Ni, Pb) compared to the Danube and Moson Danube. The concentrations of trace metals in sediments were higher than those found in water samples.
Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments
The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).
Depth-Averaged Modelling of Erosion and Sediment Transport in Free-Surface Flows
A fast finite volume solver for multi-layered shallow
water flows with mass exchange and an erodible bed is developed.
This enables the user to solve a number of complex sediment-based
problems including (but not limited to), dam-break over an erodible
bed, recirculation currents and bed evolution as well as levy and
dyke failure. This research develops methodologies crucial to the
under-standing of multi-sediment fluvial mechanics and waterway
design. In this model mass exchange between the layers is allowed
and, in contrast to previous models, sediment and fluid are able
to transfer between layers. In the current study we use a two-step
finite volume method to avoid the solution of the Riemann problem.
Entrainment and deposition rates are calculated for the first time in
a model of this nature. In the first step the governing equations are
rewritten in a non-conservative form and the intermediate solutions
are calculated using the method of characteristics. In the second stage,
the numerical fluxes are reconstructed in conservative form and are
used to calculate a solution that satisfies the conservation property.
This method is found to be considerably faster than other comparative
finite volume methods, it also exhibits good shock capturing. For most
entrainment and deposition equations a bed level concentration factor
is used. This leads to inaccuracies in both near bed level concentration
and total scour. To account for diffusion, as no vertical velocities
are calculated, a capacity limited diffusion coefficient is used. The
additional advantage of this multilayer approach is that there is a
variation (from single layer models) in bottom layer fluid velocity:
this dramatically reduces erosion, which is often overestimated in
simulations of this nature using single layer flows. The model is
used to simulate a standard dam break. In the dam break simulation,
as expected, the number of fluid layers utilised creates variation in
the resultant bed profile, with more layers offering a higher deviation
in fluid velocity . These results showed a marked variation in erosion
profiles from standard models. The overall the model provides new
insight into the problems presented at minimal computational cost.
Heavy Metals Estimation in Coastal Areas Using Remote Sensing, Field Sampling and Classical and Robust Statistic
Sediments are an important source of accumulation of toxic contaminants within the aquatic environment. Bioassays are a powerful tool for the study of sediments in relation to their toxicity, but they can be expensive. This article presents a methodology to estimate the main physical property of intertidal sediments in coastal zones: heavy metals concentration. This study, which was developed in the Bay of Santander (Spain), applies classical and robust statistic to CASI-2 hyperspectral images to estimate heavy metals presence and ecotoxicity (TOC). Simultaneous fieldwork (radiometric and chemical sampling) allowed an appropriate atmospheric correction to CASI-2 images.
Grain Size Characteristics and Sediments Distribution in the Eastern Part of Lekki Lagoon
A total of 20 bottom sediment samples were collected from the Lekki Lagoon during the wet and dry season. The study was carried out to determine the textural characteristics, sediment distribution pattern and energy of transportation within the lagoon system. The sediment grain sizes and depth profiling was analyzed using dry sieving method and MATLAB algorithm for processing. The granulometric reveals fine grained sand both for the wet and dry season with an average mean value of 2.03 ϕ and -2.88 ϕ, respectively. Sediments were moderately sorted with an average inclusive standard deviation of 0.77 ϕ and -0.82 ϕ. Skewness varied from strongly coarse and near symmetrical 0.34- ϕ and 0.09 ϕ. The kurtosis average value was 0.87 ϕ and -1.4 ϕ (platykurtic and leptokurtic). Entirely, the bathymetry shows an average depth of 4.0 m. The deepest and shallowest area has a depth of 11.2 m and 0.5 m, respectively. High concentration of fine sand was observed at deep areas compared to the shallow areas during wet and dry season. Statistical parameter results show that the overall sediments are sorted, and deposited under low energy condition over a long distance. However, sediment distribution and sediment transport pattern of Lekki Lagoon is controlled by a low energy current and the down slope configuration of the bathymetry enhances the sorting and the deposition rate in the Lekki Lagoon.
Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia
The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).
Sediment Transport Monitoring in the Port of Veracruz Expansion Project
The construction of most coastal infrastructure developments around the world are usually made considering wave height, current velocities and river discharges; however, little effort has been paid to surveying sediment transport during dredging or the modification to currents outside the ports or marinas during and after the construction. This study shows a complete survey during the construction of one of the largest ports of the Gulf of Mexico. An anchored Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler (ADCP), a towed ADCP and a combination of model outputs were used at the Veracruz port construction in order to describe the hourly sediment transport and current modifications in and out of the new port. Owing to the stability of the system the new port was construction inside Vergara Bay, a low wave energy system with a tidal range of up to 0.40 m. The results show a two-current system pattern within the bay. The north side of the bay has an anticyclonic gyre, while the southern part of the bay shows a cyclonic gyre. Sediment transport trajectories were made every hour using the anchored ADCP, a numerical model and the weekly data obtained from the towed ADCP within the entire bay. The sediment transport trajectories were carefully tracked since the bay is surrounded by coral reef structures which are sensitive to sedimentation rate and water turbidity. The survey shows that during dredging and rock input used to build the wave breaker sediments were locally added (< 2500 m2) and local currents disperse it in less than 4 h. While the river input located in the middle of the bay and the sewer system plant may add more than 10 times this amount during a rainy day or during the tourist season. Finally, the coastal line obtained seasonally with a drone suggests that the southern part of the bay has not been modified by the construction of the new port located in the northern part of the bay, owing to the two subsystem division of the bay.
An Experimental Study to Mitigate Swelling Pressure of Expansive Tabuk Shale, Saudi Arabia
In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are several areas where expansive soil exists in the form of variable-thicknesses layers in the developed regions. Severe distress to infrastructures can be caused by the development of heave and swelling pressure in this kind of expansive shale. Among the various techniques for expansive soil mitigation, the removal and replacement technique is very popular for lightly loaded structures and shallow foundations. This paper presents the result of an experimental study conducted for evaluating the effect of type and thickness of the cushion soils on mitigation of swelling characteristics of expanded shale. Seven undisturbed shale samples collected from Al Qadsiyah district, which is located in the Tabuk town north Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are treated with two types of cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS); sand and gravel. Each type is represented with three thicknesses, 22%, 33% and 44% in relation to the depth of the active zone. The test results indicated that the replacement of expansive shale by CCS reduces the swelling potential and pressure. It is found that the reduction in swelling depends on the type and thickness of CCS. The treatment by removing the original expansive shale and replacing it by cushion sand with 44% thickness reduced the swelling potential and pressure of about 53.29% and 62.78 %, respectively.
Study of the Potential of Raw Sediments and Sediments Treated with Lime or Cement for Use in a Foundation Layer and the Base Layer of a Roadway
In this work, firstly we have studied the potential of raw sediments and sediments treated with lime or cement for use in a foundation layer and the base layer of a roadway. Secondly, we have examined mineral changes caused by the addition of lime or cement in order to explain the mechanical performance of stabilized sediments. After determining the amount of lime and cement required stabilizing the sediments, the compaction characteristics and Immediate Bearing Capacity (IBI) were studied using the Modified Proctor method. Then, the evolution of the three parameters, which are optimum water content, maximum dry density and IBI, were determined. Mechanical performances can be evaluated through resistance to compression, resistance under traction and the elasticity modulus. The resistances of the formulations treated with ROLAC®645 increase with the amount of ROLAC®645. Traction resistance and the elastic modulus were used to evaluate the potential of the formulations as road construction materials using the classification diagram. The results show that all the other formulations with ROLAC®645 can be used in subgrades and foundation layers for roads.
A Study on Holosen-Pleistosen Sedimentology of Morphotectonic Structure and Seismicity of Gökova Bay
In this research which has been prepared to show the relationship between Gökova Bay’s morphotectonic structure and seismicity, it is clear that there are many active faults in the region. The existence of a thick sedimentary accumulation since Late Quaternary times is obvious as a result of the geophysical workings in the region and the interpretation of seismic data which has been planning to be taken from the Bay. In the regions which have been tectonically active according to the interpretation of the taken data, the existence of the successive earthquakes in the last few years is remarkable. By analyzing large earthquakes affecting the areas remaining inside the sediments in West Anatolian Collapse System, this paper aims to reveal the fault systems constituting earthquakes with the information obtained from this study and to determine seismicity of the present residential areas right next to them. It is also aimed to anticipate the measures to be taken against possible earthquake hazards, to identify these areas posing a risk in terms of residential and urban planning and to determine at least partly the characteristics of the basin.
Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer
Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.
Risk Assessment of Trace Element Pollution in Gymea Bay, NSW, Australia
The main purpose of this study is to assess the
sediment quality and potential ecological risk in marine sediments in
Gymea Bay located in south Sydney, Australia. A total of 32 surface
sediment samples were collected from the bay. Current track
trajectories and velocities have also been measured in the bay. The
resultant trace elements were compared with the adverse biological
effect values Effect Range Low (ERL) and Effect Range Median
(ERM) classifications. The results indicate that the average values of
chromium, arsenic, copper, zinc, and lead in surface sediments all
reveal low pollution levels and are below ERL and ERM values. The
highest concentrations of trace elements were found close to
discharge points and in the inner bay, and were linked with high
percentages of clay minerals, pyrite and organic matter, which can
play a significant role in trapping and accumulating these elements.
The lowest concentrations of trace elements were found to be on the
shoreline of the bay, which contained high percentages of sand
fractions. It is postulated that the fine particles and trace elements are
disturbed by currents and tides, then transported and deposited in
deeper areas. The current track velocities recorded in Gymea Bay had
the capability to transport fine particles and trace element pollution
within the bay. As a result, hydrodynamic measurements were able to
provide useful information and to help explain the distribution of
sedimentary particles and geochemical properties. This may lead to
knowledge transfer to other bay systems, including those in remote
areas. These activities can be conducted at a low cost, and are
therefore also transferrable to developing countries. The advent of
portable instruments to measure trace elements in the field has also
contributed to the development of these lower cost and easily applied
methodologies available for use in remote locations and low-cost
The Genesis of the Anomalous Sernio Fan, Valtellina, Northern Italy
Massive rock avalanches formed some of the largest landslide deposits on Earth and they represent one of the major geohazards in high-relief mountains. This paper interprets a very large sedimentary fan (the Sernio fan, Valtellina, Northern Italy), located 20 Km SW from Val Pola Rock avalanche (1987), as the deposit of a partial collapse of a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD), afterwards eroded and buried by debris flows. The proposed emplacement sequence has been reconstructed based on geomorphological, structural and mechanical evidences. The Sernio fan is actually considered anomalous with reference to the very high ratio between the fan area (≈ 4.5km2) and the basin area (≈ 3km2). The morphology of the fan area is characterised by steep slopes (dip ≈ 20%) and the fan apex is extended for 1.8 km inside the small catchment basin. This sedimentary fan was originated by a landslide that interested a part of a large deep-seated gravitational slope deformation, involving a wide area of about 55 km². The main controlling factor is tectonic and it is related to the proximity to regional fault systems and the consequent occurrence of fault weak rocks (GSI locally lower than 10 with compressive stress lower than 20MPa). Moreover, the fan deposit shows sedimentary evidences of recent debris flow events. The best current explanation of the Sernio fan involves an initial failure of some hundreds of Mm3. The run-out was quite limited because of the morphology of Valtellina’s valley floor, and the deposit filled the main valley forming a landslide dam, as confirmed by the lacustrine deposits detected upstream the fan. Nowadays the debris flow events represent the main hazard in the study area.
Predictive Modelling Techniques in Sediment Yield and Hydrological Modelling
This paper presents an extensive review of literature
relevant to the modelling techniques adopted in sediment yield and
hydrological modelling. Several studies relating to sediment yield are
discussed. Many research areas of sedimentation in rivers, runoff and
reservoirs are presented. Different types of hydrological models,
different methods employed in selecting appropriate models for
different case studies are analysed. Applications of evolutionary
algorithms and artificial intelligence techniques are discussed and
compared especially in water resources management and modelling.
This review concentrates on Genetic Programming (GP) and fully
discusses its theories and applications. The successful applications of
GP as a soft computing technique were reviewed in sediment
modelling. Some fundamental issues such as benchmark,
generalization ability, bloat, over-fitting and other open issues
relating to the working principles of GP are highlighted. This paper
concludes with the identification of some research gaps in
hydrological modelling and sediment yield.
Bed Evolution under One-Episode Flushing in a Truck Sewer in Paris, France
Sewer deposits have been identified as a major cause
of dysfunctions in combined sewer systems regarding sewer
management, which induces different negative consequents resulting
in poor hydraulic conveyance, environmental damages as well as
worker’s health. In order to overcome the problematics of
sedimentation, flushing has been considered as the most operative
and cost-effective way to minimize the sediments impacts and
prevent such challenges. Flushing, by prompting turbulent wave
effects, can modify the bed form depending on the hydraulic
properties and geometrical characteristics of the conduit. So far, the
dynamics of the bed-load during high-flow events in combined sewer
systems as a complex environment is not well understood, mostly due
to lack of measuring devices capable to work in the “hostile” in
combined sewer system correctly. In this regards, a one-episode
flushing issue from an opening gate valve with weir function was
carried out in a trunk sewer in Paris to understand its cleansing
efficiency on the sediments (thickness: 0-30 cm). During more than
1h of flushing within 5 m distance in downstream of this flushing
device, a maximum flowrate and a maximum level of water have
been recorded at 5 m in downstream of the gate as 4.1 m3/s and 2.1
m respectively. This paper is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of this
type of gate for around 1.1 km (from the point -50 m to +1050 m in
downstream from the gate) by (i) determining bed grain-size
distribution and sediments evolution through the sewer channel, as
well as their organic matter content, and (ii) identifying sections that
exhibit more changes in their texture after the flush. For the first one,
two series of sampling were taken from the sewer length and then
analyzed in laboratory, one before flushing and second after, at same
points among the sewer channel. Hence, a non-intrusive sampling
instrument has undertaken to extract the sediments smaller than the
fine gravels. The comparison between sediments texture after the
flush operation and the initial state, revealed the most modified zones
by the flush effect, regarding the sewer invert slope and hydraulic
parameters in the zone up to 400 m from the gate. At this distance,
despite the increase of sediment grain-size rages, D50 (median grainsize)
varies between 0.6 mm and 1.1 mm compared to 0.8 mm and 10
mm before and after flushing, respectively. Overall, regarding the
sewer channel invert slope, results indicate that grains smaller than
sands (< 2 mm) are more transported to downstream along about 400
m from the gate: in average 69% before against 38% after the flush
with more dispersion of grain-sizes distributions. Furthermore, high
effect of the channel bed irregularities on the bed material evolution
has been observed after the flush.
Spatio-temporal Variations in Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Qua Iboe River Estuary, Nigeria
The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of
Qua Iboe River Estuary (QIRE) were monitored at four different
sampling locations in wet and dry seasons. A preliminary survey to
determine the four sampling stations along the river continuum
showed that the area spanned between
Oily Sludge Bioremediation Pilot Plant Project, Nigeria
Brass terminal, one of the several crude oil and
petroleum products storage/handling facilities in the Niger Delta was
built in the 1980s. Activities at this site, over the years, released
crude oil into this 3 m-deep, 1500 m-long canal lying adjacent to the
terminal with oil floating on it and its sediment heavily polluted. To
ensure effective clean-up, three major activities were planned: site
characterization, bioremediation pilot plant construction and testing
and full-scale bioremediation of contaminated sediment / bank soil by
land farming. The canal was delineated into 12 lots and each
characterized, with reference to the floating oily phase, contaminated
sediment and canal bank soil. As a result of site characterization, a
pilot plant for on-site bioremediation was designed and a treatment
basin constructed for carrying out pilot bioremediation test.
Following a designed sampling protocol, samples from this pilot
plant were collected for analysis at two laboratories as a quality
assurance / quality control check. Results showed that Brass Canal
upstream is contaminated with dark, thick and viscous oily film with
characteristic hydrocarbon smell while downstream, thin oily film
interspersed with water was observed. Sediments were observed to be
dark with mixture of brownish sandy soil with TPH ranging from
17,800 mg/kg in Lot 1 to 88,500 mg/kg in Lot 12 samples. Brass
Canal bank soil was observed to be sandy from ground surface to 3m,
below ground surface (bgs) it was silty-sandy and brownish while
subsurface soil (4-10m bgs) was sandy-clayey and whitish/grayish
with typical hydrocarbon smell. Preliminary results obtained so far
have been very promising but were proprietary. This project is
considered, to the best of technical literature knowledge, the first
large-scale on-site bioremediation project in the Niger Delta region,
Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina
This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in
the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban
space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires
metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped;
their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they
have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of
environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until
thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely
populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure.
The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in
the José León Suárez section of General San Martín county, Buenos
Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the
neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to
the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream,
in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In
this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that
holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of
contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that
runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually
cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the
stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water
processing plants for the metropolis.
This project has studied the different organic-load polluting
contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the
reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the
incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that
the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to
processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is
accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by
means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the
risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied
here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.
The Effect of the Side-Weir Crest Height to Scour in Clay-Sand Mixed Sediments
Experimental studies to investigate the depth of the
scour conducted at a side-weir intersection located at the 1800 curved
flume which located Hydraulic Laboratory of Yıldız Technical
University, Istanbul, Turkey. Side weirs were located at the middle of
the straight part of the main channel. Three different lengths (25, 40
and 50 cm) and three different weir crest height (7, 10 and 12 cm) of
the side weir placed on the side weir station. There is no scour when
the material is only kaolin. Therefore, the cohesive bed was prepared
by properly mixing clay material (kaolin) with 31% sand in all
experiments. Following 24h consolidation time, in order to observe
the effect of flow intensity on the scour depth, experiments were
carried out for five different upstream Froude numbers in the range of
As a result of this study the relation between scour depth and
upstream flow intensity as a function of time have been established.
The longitudinal velocities decreased along the side weir; towards the
downstream due to overflow over the side-weirs. At the beginning,
the scour depth increases rapidly with time and then asymptotically
approached constant values in all experiments for all side weir
dimensions as in non-cohesive sediment. Thus, the scour depth
reached equilibrium conditions. Time to equilibrium depends on the
approach flow intensity and the dimensions of side weirs. For
different heights of the weir crest, dimensionless scour depths
increased with increasing upstream Froude number. Equilibrium
scour depths which formed 7 cm side-weir crest height were obtained
higher than that of the 12 cm side-weir crest height. This means when
side-weir crest height increased equilibrium scour depths decreased.
Although the upstream side of the scour hole is almost vertical, the
downstream side of the hole is inclined.
Analysis of a Coupled Hydro-Sedimentological Numerical Model for the Tombolo of GIENS
The western Tombolo of the Giens peninsula in
southern France, known as Almanarre beach, is subject to coastal
erosion. We are trying to use computer simulation in order to propose
solutions to stop this erosion. Our aim was first to determine the main
factors for this erosion and successfully apply a coupled hydrosedimentological
numerical model based on observations and
measurements that have been performed on the site for decades.
We have gathered all available information and data about waves,
winds, currents, tides, bathymetry, coastal line, and sediments
concerning the site. These have been divided into two sets: one
devoted to calibrating a numerical model using Mike 21 software, the
other to serve as a reference in order to numerically compare the
present situation to what it could be if we implemented different
types of underwater constructions.
This paper presents the first part of the study: selecting and
melting different sources into a coherent data basis, identifying the
main erosion factors, and calibrating the coupled software model
against the selected reference period.
Our results bring calibration of the numerical model with good
fitting coefficients. They also show that the winter South-Western
storm events conjugated to depressive weather conditions constitute a
major factor of erosion, mainly due to wave impact in the northern
part of the Almanarre beach. Together, current and wind impact is
Performance Evaluation of Filtration System for Groundwater Recharging Well in the Presence of Medium Sand-Mixed Storm Water
Collection of storm water runoff and forcing it into the
groundwater is the need of the hour to sustain the ground water table.
However, the runoff entraps various types of sediments and other
floating objects whose removal are essential to avoid pollution of
ground water and blocking of pores of aquifer. However, it requires
regular cleaning and maintenance due to problem of clogging. To
evaluate the performance of filter system consisting of coarse sand
(CS), gravel (G) and pebble (P) layers, a laboratory experiment was
conducted in a rectangular column. The effect of variable thickness
of CS, G and P layers of the filtration unit of the recharge shaft on the
recharge rate and the sediment concentration of effluent water were
Medium sand (MS) of three particle sizes, viz. 0.150–0.300 mm
(T1), 0.300–0.425 mm (T2) and 0.425–0.600 mm of thickness 25 cm,
30 cm and 35 cm respectively in the top layer of the filter system and
having seven influent sediment concentrations of 250–3,000 mg/l
were used for experimental study. The performance was evaluated in
terms of recharge rates and clogging time. The results indicated that
100 % suspended solids were entrapped in the upper 10 cm layer of
MS, the recharge rates declined sharply for influent concentrations of
more than 1,000 mg/l. All treatments with higher thickness of MS
media indicated recharge rate slightly more than that of all treatment
with lower thickness of MS media respectively. The performance of
storm water infiltration systems was highly dependent on the
formation of a clogging layer at the filter. An empirical relationship
has been derived between recharge rates, inflow sediment load, size
of MS and thickness of MS with using MLR.
Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model
Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.
Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France
This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.
Maintenance Dredging at Port of Townsville
The Port of Townsville conducts regular annual
maintenance dredging to maintain depths of its harbor basin and
approach channels for the navigational safety of the vessels against
the natural accumulation of marine sediments. In addition to the
regular maintenance dredging, the port undertakes emergency
dredging in cases where large quantities of sediments are mobilized
and deposited in port waters by cyclone or major flood events. The
maintenance dredging material derived from the port may be
disposed at sea or on land in accordance with relevant state and
commonwealth regulations. For the land disposal, the dredged mud
slurry is hydraulically placed into containment ponds and left to
undergo sedimentation and self-weight consolidation to form fill
material for land reclamation. This paper provides an overview of the
maintenance dredging at the Port of Townsville and emphasis on
maintenance dredging requirements, sediment quality, bathymetry,
dredging methods used, and dredged material disposal options.