Israeli Households Caring for Children and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Explorative Study
Background: In recent years we are witnessing a welcome trend in which more children/persons with disabilities are living at home with their families and within their communities. This trend is related to various policy innovations as the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities that reflect a shift from the medical-institutional model to a human rights approach. We also witness the emergence of family centered approaches that perceive the family and not just the individual with the disability as a worthy target of policy planning, implementation and evaluation efforts. The current investigation aims to explore economic, psychological and social factors among households of families of children or adults with intellectual disabilities in Israel and to present policy recommendation. Methods: A national sample of 301 households was recruited through the education and employment settings of persons with intellectual disability. The main caregiver of the person with the disability (a parent) was interviewed. Measurements included the income and expense surveys; assets and debts questionnaire; the questionnaire on resources and stress; the social involvement questionnaire and Personal Wellbeing Index. Results: Findings indicate significant gaps in financial circumstances between households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and households of the general Israeli society. Households of families of children with intellectual disabilities report lower income and higher expenditures and loans than the general society. They experience difficulties in saving and coping with unexpected expenses. Caregivers (the parents) experience high stress, low social participation, low financial support from family, friend and non-governmental organizations and decreased well-being. They are highly dependent on social security allowances which constituted 40% of the household's income. Conclusions: Households' dependency on social security allowances may seem contradictory to the encouragement of persons with intellectual disabilities to favor independent living in light of the human rights approach to disability. New policy should aim at reducing caregivers' stress and enhance their social participation and support, with special emphasis on families of lower socio-economic status. Finally, there is a need to continue monitoring the economic and psycho-social needs of households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities.
A Constructive Analysis of the Formation of LGBTQ Families: Where Utopia and Reality Meet
The issue of social and legal recognition of LGBTQ families is of high importance when exploring the possibility of a family. Of equal importance is the fact that both society and the individual contribute to the overall recognition of LGBTQ families. This paper is a conceptual discussion, by methodology, of both sides; it uses a method of constructive analysis to expound on this issue. This method’s aim is to broaden conceptual theory, and introduce a new relationship between concepts that were previously not associated by evidence. This exploration has found that LGBTQ realities from an international perspective may differ and both legal and social rights are critical toward self-consciousness and the formation of a family. This paper asserts that internalised and historic oppression of LGBTQ individuals, places them, not always and not in all places, in a disadvantageous position as far as engaging with the potential of forming a family goes. The paper concludes that lack of social recognition and internalised oppression are key barriers regarding LGBTQ families.
Transgenerational Entrepreneurship in Chinese Family Businesses: Proposal for a Model of Work-Life Synergy
Family business are the dominant form of business in the world, and Chinese family business (CFB) is a unique type of family business that relies on collective action to survive. This paper argues that in CFBs, entrepreneurial actions are transgenerational collective endeavors, and successors are groomed as stewards of the family legacy. Work-life relationship in CFBs is about synergy and not balance because the family identity is the business identity, and vice-versa. Using five in-depth case studies, this research introduces an alternative understanding of CFBs and proposes a model of work-life synergy in transgenerational entrepreneurship based on discussion of five theory-based propositions. This model explains that through emphasizing on the business family’s shared value and entrepreneurial legacy, elements of trust, shared identity and stewardship of family members are enhanced which leads to collective action and goal of the business family, resulting in transgenerational entrepreneurship. Limitations and future research are presented.
Barriers and Strategies for Effective Communication between Parents and Children in the Family
This article deals with the issue of effective communication between parents and children and its impact on the family in general and on the child in particular. The aim of this article is to provide information to parents, students, anyone interested in family communication between parents and children, and to provide them with tools to deal with barriers to communication in the family unit. The article presented a literature review of the importance of effective communication in the family, the definition of the concept of communication, and was a reference to factors and barriers in communication between parents and children leading to conflict destructive to the extent that barriers to effective communication in the family unit. At the end of the article, strategies were introduced to motivate children to behave appropriately, and to equip parents best to foster the healthy development of their children when they can create an atmosphere of effective communication. From the literature review, it's found that effective communication between parents and children prevents problematic behavior and helps children understand how to communicate effectively with others. Communication between parents and children is the cornerstone of a happy family life and is the basis for positive interactions between parents and children and increases self-esteem in children.
A Quantitative Study on the Effects of School Development on Character Development
One of the aims of education is to educate individuals who have embraced universal moral principles and transform universal moral principles into moral values. Character education aims to educate behaviors of individuals in their mental activities to transform moral principles into moral values in their lives. As the result of this education, individuals are expected to develop positive character traits and become morally indifferent individuals. What are the characteristics of the factors that influence character education at this stage? How should character education help individuals develop positive character traits? Which methods are more effective? These questions come to mind when studying character education. Our research was developed within the framework of these questions. The aim of our study is to provide the most effective use of the education factor that affects character. In this context, we tried to explain character definition, character development, character education and the factors affecting character education using qualitative research methods. At this stage, character education programs applied in various countries were examined and a character education program consisting of Islamic values was prepared and implemented in an International Imam Hatip High School in Istanbul. Our application was carried out with the collaboration of school and families. Various seminars were organized in the school and participation of families was ensured. In the last phase of our study, we worked with the students and their families on the effectiveness of the events held during the program. In this study, it was found that activities such as storytelling and theater in character education programs were effective in recognizing wrong behaviors in individuals. It was determined that our program had a positive effect on the quality of education. It was seen that applications of this educational program affected the behavior of the employees in the educational institution.
The Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Divorced Wives in Facing the Cancer Death of Their Ex-Husbands
With the surge of divorce rate and male cancer onset/death rates, the phenomenon of divorced wives in the facing cancer death of their ex-husbands is not uncommon in Hong Kong. Yet, there is a dearth of study on the experiences of bereaved-divorced wives in the Hong Kong cultural context. This project fills the knowledge gap by conducting a qualitative study for having interviewed four bereaved ex-wives, who returned to ex-husbands’ end-of-life caregiving and eventually grieved for the ex-spousal’s death. From the perspectives of attachment theory and disenfranchised grief in the Hong Kong cultural context, a ‘double-loss’ experience is found in which interviewees suffer from the first loss of divorce and the second loss of ex-husbands’ death. Traumatic childhood experiences, attachment needs, role ambiguity, unresolved emotions and unrecognized grief are found significant in their lived experiences which alert the ‘double-loss’ is worthy of attention. Extending a family-centered end-of-life and bereavement care services to divorced couples is called for, in which validation on the attachment needs, ex-couple reconciliation, and acknowledgement on the disenfranchised grief are essential for social work practice on this group of clienteles specifically in Hong Kong cultural context.
Revisiting Hospital Ward Design Basics for Sustainable Family Integration
The concept of space and function forms the bedrock for spatial configuration in architectural design. Thus, the effectiveness and functionality of an architectural product depends their cordial relationship. This applies to all buildings especially to a hospital ward setting designed to accommodate various complex and diverse functions. Health care facilities design, especially an inpatient setting, is governed by many regulations and technical requirements. It is also affected by many less defined needs, particularly, response to culture and the need to provide for patient families’ presence and participation. The spatial configuration of the hospital ward setting in developing countries has no consideration for the patient’s families despite the significant role they play in promoting recovery. Attempts to integrate facilities for patients’ families have always been challenging, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where accommodation for inpatients is predominantly in an open ward system. In addition, the situation is compounded by culture, which significantly dictates healthcare practices in Africa. Therefore, achieving such a hospital ward setting that is patient and family-centered requires careful assessment of family care actions and transaction spaces so as to arrive at an evidence based solution. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify how hospital ward spaces can be reconfigured to provide for sustainable family integration. In achieving this aim, a qualitative approach using the principles of behavioral mapping was employed in male and female medical wards of the Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria. The data obtained was analysed using classical and comparative content analysis. Patients’ families have been found to be a critical component of hospital ward design that cannot be undermined. Accordingly, bedsides, open yards, corridors and foyers have been identified as patient families’ transaction spaces that require design attention. Arriving at sustainable family integration can be achieved by revisiting the design requirements of the family transaction spaces based on the findings in order to avoid the rowdiness of the wards and uncoordinated sprawl.
A Study on How Newlyweds Handle the Difference with Parents on Wedding Arrangements and Its Implication for Services in Hong Kong
This research examined the literature review of wedding preparation’s challenges and its developmental tasks of family transition under family life cycle. Five interviewees were invited to share their experiences on the differences with their parents in regard to wedding preparations and coping strategies. Some coping strategies and processes were highlighted for facilitating the family to achieve the developmental tasks during the wedding preparation. However, those coping strategies and processes may only act as the step and the behavior, while “concern towards parents” was found to be the essential element behind these behaviors. In addition to pre-marital counseling, a developmental group was suggested to develop under the framework of family life cycle and its related coping strategies on working with the newlyweds who encountered intergenerational differences in regard to their wedding preparations.
Family Functionality in Mexican Children with Congenital and Non-Congenital Deafness
A total of 100 primary caregivers (mothers, fathers, grandparents) with at least one child or grandchild with a diagnosis of congenital bilateral profound deafness were assessed in order to evaluate the functionality of families with a deaf member, who was evaluated by specialists in audiology, molecular biology, genetics and psychology. After confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, DNA from the patients and parents were analyzed in search of the 35delG deletion of the GJB2 gene to determine who possessed the mutation. All primary caregivers were provided psychological support, regardless of whether or not they had the mutation, and prior and subsequent, the family APGAR test was applied. All parents, grandparents were informed of the results of the genetic analysis during the psychological intervention. The family APGAR, after psychological and genetic counseling, showed that 14% perceived their families as functional, 62% moderately functional and 24% dysfunctional. This shows the importance of psychological support in family functionality that has a direct impact on the quality of life of these families.
Exploring Elder Care in Different Settings in West Bengal: A Psycho-Social Study of Private Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care Facilities
West Bengal, one of the most rapidly ageing states in India, has inadequate structure for elder care. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve elder care which involves focusing on different care settings where the elderly exists, like - Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care facilities (e.g. - Old Age Homes, Hospices). The study explores various elder care settings, with the intention to develop an understanding about them, and thereby generate comprehensive information about the entire spectrum of elder care in Kolkata. Empirical data are collected from the elderly and their caregivers in different settings. The tools for data collection are narratives, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, along with field observations. Mixed method design is adopted to analyze the complexities of elder care in different set ups. The major challenges of elder care in private Homes are: architecturally inadequate housing conditions, paucity of financial support and scarcity of skilled caregivers. While the key factors preventing the Hospital and Long-Term Care Facilities from providing elder care services are inadequate policies and set governmental standards for elder care for the hospitalized elderly in various departments of the Hospital and the elderly residing in different kinds of Long Term Care Facilities. The limitations in each care setting results in considerable neglect and abuse of the elderly. The major challenges in elder care in West Bengal are lack of continuum between different care settings/ peripheral location of private Homes within public health framework and inadequate state Palliative policy- including narcotic regulations. The study suggests remedial measures to improve the capacity to deliver elder care in different settings.
Family Carers' Experiences in Striving for Medical Care and Finding Their Solutions for Family Members with Mental Illnesses
Wishes and choices being respected, and the right to be supported rather than coerced, have been internationally recognized as the human rights of persons with mental illness. In Taiwan, ‘coerced hospitalization’ has become difficult since the revision of the mental health legislation in 2007. Despite trend towards human rights, the real problem families face when their family members are in mental health crisis is the lack of alternative services. This study aims to explore: 1) When is hospitalization seen as the only solution by family members? 2) What are the barriers for arranging hospitalization, and how are they managed? 3) What have family carers learned, in their experiences of caring for their family members with mental illness? To answer these questions, qualitative approach was adopted, and focus group interviews were taken to collect data. This study includes 24 family carers. The main findings of this research include: First, hospital is the last resort for carers in helplessness. Family carers tend to do everything they could to provide care at home for their family members with mental illness. Carers seek hospitalization only when a patient’s behavior is too violent, weird, and/or abnormal, and beyond their ability to manage. Hospitalization, nevertheless, is never an easy choice. Obstacles emanate from the attitudes of the medical doctors, the restricted areas of ambulance service, and insufficient information from the carers’ part. On the other hand, with some professionals’ proactive assistance, access to medical care while in crisis becomes possible. Some family carers obtained help from the medical doctor, nurse, therapist and social workers. Some experienced good help from policemen, taxi drivers, and security guards at the hospital. The difficulty in accessing medical care prompts carers to work harder on assisting their family members with mental illness to stay in stable states. Carers found different ways of helping the ‘person’ to get along with the ‘illness’ and have better quality of life. Taking back ‘the right to control’ in utilizing medication, from passiveness to negotiating with medical doctors and seeking alternative therapies, are seen in many carers’ efforts. Besides, trying to maintain regular activities in daily life and play normal family roles are also experienced as important. Furthermore, talking with the patient as a person is also important. The authors conclude that in order to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness, it is crucial to make the medical care system more flexible and to make the services more humane: sufficient information should be provided and communicated, and efforts should be made to maintain the person’s social roles and to support the family.
Forecasting Materials Demand from Multi-Source Ordering
The downstream manufactures will order their materials from different upstream suppliers to maintain a certain level of the demand. This paper proposes a bivariate model to portray this phenomenon of material demand. We use empirical data to estimate the parameters of model and evaluate the RMSD of model calibration. The results show that the model has better fitness.
Identification of Common Indicators of Family Environment of Pupils of Alternative Schools
The paper presents the results of research in which we were looking for common characteristics of the family environment of students alternative and innovative education systems. Topicality comes from the fact that nowadays in the Czech Republic there are several civic and parental initiatives held with the aim to establish schools for their children. The goal of our research was to reveal key aspects of these families and to identify their common indicators. Among other things, we were interested what reasons lead parents to decide to enroll their child into different education than standard (common). The survey was qualitative and there were eighteen respondents of parents of alternative schools´ pupils. The reason to implement qualitative design was the opportunity to gain deeper insight into the essence of phenomena and to obtain detailed information, which would become the basis for subsequent quantitative research. There have been semi structured interviews done with the respondents which had been recorded and transcribed. By an analysis of gained data (categorization and by coding), we found out that common indicator of our respondents is higher education and higher economic level. This issue should be at the forefront of the researches because there is lack of analysis which would provide a comparison of common and alternative schools in the Czech Republic especially with regard to quality of education. Based on results, we consider questions whether approaches of these parents towards standard education come from their own experience or from the lack of knowledge of current goals and objectives of education policy of the Czech Republic.
The Role of Parents in Teaching Entrepreneurship Culture to Their Children in Family Businesses
Similar to economies in many countries; family-owned enterprises have a significant role in the development of Turkish economy. Although they have a large share in economic terms, their lifetime is limited to working life of their founders. Failure in achieving their sustainability deeply affects not only these businesses but also the economy. Therefore, two basic elements of family owned enterprises, family and organizational culture and especially entrepreneurship culture, should be examined closely. The degree of effectiveness of parents in instilling their children with entrepreneurship culture and their effects on children's profession choices are examined through face-to-face surveys with the managers owning family businesses randomly chosen among family-owned enterprises registered in Konya Chamber of Industry, which are active in specific sectors and which had different generations in their management.
The Impact of Character Strengths on Employee Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Work-Family Relationship
For organizational development, employee well-being is critical and has been influenced deeply by character strengths. Therefore, investigating the relationship between character strengths and employee well-being and its inner mechanism is crucial. In this study, we explored the features of Chinese employees' character strengths, studied the relationship between character strengths and employees' subjective well-being, work well-being and psychological well-being respectively, and examined the mediating effect of work-family relationship (both enrichment and conflict). An online survey was conducted. The results showed that: (1) The top five character strengths of Chinese employees were gratitude, citizenship, kindness, appreciation of beauty and excellence, justice, while the bottom five ones were creativity, authenticity, bravery, spirituality, open-mindedness. (2) Subjective well-being was significantly correlated to courage, humanity, transcendence and justice. Work well-being was significantly correlated to wisdom, courage, humanity, justice and transcendence. Psychological well-being was significantly correlated to all the above five character strengths and temperance. (3) Wisdom and humanity influenced Chinese employees’ subjective well-being through work-family enrichment. Justice enhanced psychological well-being via work-family enrichment; meanwhile, it also played a positive role in subjective well-being, work well-being, and psychological well-being by decreasing the family-work conflict. At the end of this paper, some theoretical and practical contributions to organizational management were further discussed.
Prevalence of Headache among Adult Population in Urban Varanasi, India
Headache is one of the most ubiquitous and frequent
neurological disorders interfering with everyday life in all countries.
India appears to be no exception. Objectives are to assess the
prevalence of headache among adult population in urban area of
Varanasi and to find out factors influencing the occurrence of
headache. A community based cross sectional study was conducted
among adult population in urban area of Varanasi district, Uttar
Pradesh, India. Total 151 eligible respondents were interviewed by
simple random sampling technique. Proportion percentage and Chisquare
test were applied for data analysis. Out of 151 respondents,
majority (58.3%) were females. In this study, 92.8% respondents
belonged to age group 18-60 years while 7.2% was either 60 year of
age or above. The overall prevalence of headache was found to be
51.1%. Highest and lowest prevalence of headache was recorded in
age groups 18-29 year & 40-49 year respectively. Headache was
62.1% in illiterate and was 40.0% among graduate & above.
Unskilled workers had more headache 73.1% than other type of
occupation. Headache was more prevalent among unemployed
(35.9%) than employed (6.4%). Females had higher family history of
headache (48.9%) as compared to males (41.3%). Study subjects
having peaceful relation with family members, relatives and
neighbors had more headache than those having no peaceful relation.
Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy
The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.
The Impact of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on the Improvement of the Psychological Wellbeing of Family Supervisor Women
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of the solution-focused brief therapy on improving the psychological wellbeing of family supervisor woman. This study has been carried out by semi-experimental method and in the form of pre-test, post-test performance on two groups (experimental and control), so that one sample group of 30 individuals was randomly achieved and were randomly divided in two groups of experimental (n=15) and control (n=15). To collect data, Ryff scale psychological wellbeing was used. After conducting pre-test (RSPWB) for two experimental and control groups, Solution-focused brief therapy interference was conducted on the experimental group during five two-hour sessions. Finally, Ryff scale psychological wellbeing was reused for the two groups as post-test and achieved outcomes that were analyzed using covariance. The results indicated that the significant increase of average marks of the experimental group in psychological wellbeing had better function than that of the control group. Finally, solution-focused brief therapy for improving psychological well-being of family supervisor women has a suitable capability and could be used in this way.
Psychological Variables of Sport Participation and Involvement among Student-Athletes of Tertiary Institutions in South-West, Nigeria
This study was conducted to investigate the
psychological variables motivating sport participation and
involvement among student-athletes of tertiary institutions in southwest
Nigeria. One thousand three hundred and fifty (N-1350) studentathletes
were randomly selected in all sports from nine tertiary
institutions in south-west Nigeria. These tertiary institutions include
University of Lagos, Lagos State University, Obafemi Awolowo
University, Osun State University, University of Ibadan, University
of Agriculture Abeokuta, Federal University of Technology
Akungba, University of Ilorin, and Kwara State University. The
descriptive survey research method was adopted while a self
developed validated Likert type questionnaire named Sport
Participation Scale (SPS) was used to elicit opinion from
respondents. The test-retest reliability value obtained for the
instrument, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient
was 0.96. Out of the one thousand three hundred and fifty (N-1350)
questionnaire administered, only one thousand two hundred and five
(N-1286) were correctly filled, coded and analysed using inferential
statistics of Chi-Square (X2) while all the tested hypotheses were set
at. 05 alpha level. Based on the findings of this study, the result
revealed that several psychological factors influence student athletes
to continue participation in sport one which includes love for the
game, famous athletes as role model and family support. However,
the analysis further revealed that the stipends the student-athletes get
from their universities have no influence on their participation and
involvement in sport.
Reliability Analysis of Computer Centre at Yobe State University Using LRU Algorithm
In this paper, we focus on the reliability and performance analysis of Computer Centre (CC) at Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria. The CC consists of three servers: one database mail server, one redundant and one for sharing with the client computers in the CC (called as a local server). Observing the different possibilities of the functioning of the CC, the analysis has been done to evaluate the various popular measures of reliability such as availability, reliability, mean time to failure (MTTF), profit analysis due to the operation of the system. The system can ultimately fail due to the failure of router, redundant server before repairing the mail server and switch failure. The system can also partially fail when a local server fails. The failed devices have restored according to Least Recently Used (LRU) techniques. The system can also fail entirely due to a cooling failure of the server, electricity failure or some natural calamity like earthquake, fire tsunami, etc. All the failure rates are assumed to be constant and follow exponential time distribution, while the repair follows two types of distributions: i.e. general and Gumbel-Hougaard family copula distribution.
Client Satisfaction: Does Private or Public Health Sector Make a Difference? Results from Secondary Data Analysis in Sindh, Pakistan
Introduction: Researchers globally have strived to explore diverse factors that augment the continuation and uptake of family planning methods. Clients’ satisfaction is one of the core determinants facilitating continuation of family planning methods. There is a major debate yet scanty evidence to contrast public and private sectors with respect to client satisfaction. The objective of this study is to compare quality-of-care provided by public and private sectors of Pakistan through a client satisfaction lens. Methods: We used Pakistan Demographic Heath Survey 2012-13 dataset on 3133 women. Ten different multivariate models were made. to explore the relationship between client satisfaction and dependent outcome after adjusting for all known confounding factors and results are presented as OR and AOR (95% CI). Results: Multivariate analyses showed that clients were less satisfied in contraceptive provision from private sector as compared to public sector (AOR 0.92, 95% CI 0.63-1.68) even though the result was not statistically significant. Clients were more satisfied from private sector as compared to the public sector with respect to other determinants of quality-of-care follow-up care (AOR 3.29, 95% CI 1.95-5.55), infection prevention (AOR 2.41, 95% CI 1.60-3.62), counseling services (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.27-3.18, timely treatment (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 2.20-5.15), attitude of staff (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.33), punctuality of staff (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.92-4.13), timely referring (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.63-3.35), staff cooperation (AOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.22-2.51) and complications handling (AOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.56-3.29). Discussion: Public sector has successfully attained substantial satisfaction levels with respect to provision of contraceptives, but it contrasts previous literature from a multi country studies. Our study though in is concordance with a study from Tanzania where public sector was more likely to offer family planning services to clients as compared to private facilities. Conclusion: In majority of the developing countries, public sector is more involved in FP service provision; however, in Pakistan clients’ satisfaction in private sector is more, which opens doors for public-private partnerships and collaboration in the near future.
Assuming the Decision of Having One (More) Child: The New Dimensions of the Post Communist Romanian Family
The first part of the paper analyzes the dynamics of
the total fertility rate both at the national and regional level, pointing
out the regional disparities in the distribution of this indicator. At the
same time, we also focus on the collapse of the number of live births,
on the changes in the fertility rate by birth rank, as well as on the
failure of acquiring the desired number of children. The second part
of the study centres upon a survey applied to urban families with 3
and more than 3 offspring. The preliminary analysis highlights the
fact that an increased fertility (more than 3rd rank) is triggered by the
parents’ above the average material condition and superior education.
The current situation of Romania, which is still passing through a
period of relatively rapid demographic changes, marked by numerous
convulsions, requires a new approach, in compliance with the recent
interpretations appropriate to a new post-transitional demographic
Determinants of Never Users of Contraception – Results from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13
Introduction: There are multiple social, individual and
cultural factors that influence an individual’s decision to adopt family
planning methods especially among non-users in patriarchal societies
like Pakistan. Non-users, if targeted efficiently, can contribute
significantly to country’s CPR. A research study showed that nonusers
if convinced to adopt lactational amenorrhea method can shift
to long term methods in future. Research shows that if non users are
targeted efficiently a 59% reduction in unintended pregnancies in
Saharan Africa and South-Central and South-East Asia is anticipated.
Methods: We did secondary data analysis on Pakistan
Demographic Heath Survey (2012-13) dataset. Use of contraception
(never-use/ever-use) was the outcome variable. At univariate level
Chi-square/Fisher Exact test was used to assess relationship of
baseline covariates with contraception use. Then variables to be
incorporated in the model were checked for multicollinearity,
confounding and interaction. Then binary logistic regression (with an
urban-rural stratification) was done to find relationship between
contraception use and baseline demographic and social variables.
Results: The multivariate analyses of the study showed that
younger women (≤ 29 years)were more prone to be never users as
compared to those who were >30 years and this trend was seen in
urban areas (AOR 1.92, CI 1.453-2.536) as well as rural areas (AOR
1.809, CI 1.421-2.303). While looking at regional variation, women
from urban Sindh (AOR 1.548, CI 1.142-2.099) and urban
Balochistan (AOR 2.403, CI 1.504-3.839) had more never users as
compared to other urban regions. Women in the rich wealth quintile
were more never users and this was seen both in urban and rural
localities (urban (AOR 1.106 CI .753-1.624); rural areas (AOR 1.162,
CI .887-1.524)) even though these were not statistically significant.
Women idealizing more children (>4) are more never users as
compared to those idealizing less children in both urban (AOR 1.854,
CI 1.275-2.697) and rural areas (AOR 2.101, CI 1.514-2.916).
Women who never lost a pregnancy were more inclined to be nonusers
in rural areas (AOR 1.394, CI 1.127-1.723) .Women familiar
with only traditional or no method had more never users in rural areas
(AOR 1.717, CI 1.127-1.723) but in urban areas it wasn’t significant.
Women unaware of Lady Health Worker’s presence in their area
were more never users especially in rural areas (AOR 1.276, CI
1.014-1.607). Women who did not visit any care provider were more
never users (urban (AOR 11.738, CI 9.112-15.121) rural areas (AOR
7.832, CI 6.243-9.826)).
Discussion/Conclusion: This study concluded that government,
policy makers and private sector family planning programs should
focus on the untapped pool of never users (younger women from underserved provinces, in higher wealth quintiles, who desire more
children.). We need to make sure to cover catchment areas where
there are less LHWs and less providers as ignorance to modern
methods and never been visited by an LHW are important
determinants of never use. This all is in sync with previous literate
from similar developing countries.
Childrearing Styles and Family Communication Patterns among University Students
Family is a basic unit of the society and the main
source of human development. The initial aim of the family is
psychological and social support of its members and has special
developmental stages. Researches show the families who have less
cohesion, have more conflicts and maladjustments and the members
of such families are not able to communicate effectively. Family is a
system in which any inter communication is related to child rearing
patterns and can affect it. Even the child rearing styles in childhood
can determine the family communications in adulthood. Therefore,
the aim of the present research was to examine the relationship
between child-rearing styles including authoritative, authoritarian and
permissive with dimensions of family communication patterns
including the conversation and conformity. The research design was a
correlational and the population consisted of the psychology students
of Roudehen Islamic Azad University who were studying in
academic year 2013-2014. A sample of 324 students was selected
randomly from the population. The research tools were the Baumrind
Child-rearing Questionnaires and Family Communication
Patterns Inventory, The Revised Scale of Koerner and Fitzpatrick.
The result was as below: (a) there was a positive and significant
relationship between conversation orientation and authoritative style.
(b) There was no significant relationship between conversation
orientation and other child-rearing styles. (c) There was a negative
significant relationship between conformity orientation and
authoritative style. (d) There was a positive significant relationship
between conformity orientation with authoritarian and permissive
styles. (e) There was a significant relationship between 3 dimensions
of child-rearing and communication patterns.
Identification of Conserved Domains and Motifs for GRF Gene Family
GRF, Growth regulating factor, genes encode a novel
class of plant-specific transcription factors. The GRF proteins play a
role in the regulation of cell numbers in young and growing tissues
and may act as transcription activations in growth and development
of plants. Identification of GRF genes and their expression are
important in plants to performance of the growth and development of
various organs. In this study, to better understanding the structural
and functional differences of GRFs family, 45 GRF proteins
sequences in A. thaliana, Z. mays, O. sativa, B. napus, B. rapa, H.
vulgare and S. bicolor, have been collected and analyzed through
bioinformatics data mining. As a result, in secondary structure of
GRFs, the number of alpha helices was more than beta sheets and in
all of them QLQ domains were completely in the biggest alpha helix.
In all GRFs, QLQ and WRC domains were completely protected
except in AtGRF9. These proteins have no trans-membrane domain
and due to have nuclear localization signals act in nuclear and they
are component of unstable proteins in the test tube.
Collapse of Family System of Japanese Tomb Culture
This paper examines Japanese life expectancy, and the declining birth rate to investigate the Japanese people’s view of death, and their consciousness of death. To support their perspectives toward death, “Eitai Kuyobo,” and tombs with Japanese animation will be focused as Japanese citizens have created unique tombs designs of their own tombs. With the methodological aspects, Japan’s birth and mortality rates, Japan’s average life expectancy, history of tombs, creation of one’s own tombs and types of marriage will be significant. By examining the Japanese history of tombs, social change and unique tombs, and the increase of mortality rate in Japanese super-aging society, this study contributes the change of people’s view toward tombs, and a view toward life and death. Accordingly, focusing on the change of people’s view toward tombs it is concluded that the change is caused by the increase of mortality rate in Japanese super-aging society.
Female Labor Force Participation in Third World Countries: An Empirical Analysis
The study identified the socio-economic and
demographic factors of both married and unmarried females in third
world countries. Almost all the countries have same problems but we
have selected Pakistan as a sample country. The main purpose of this
study was to examine which factors forced women to participate in
labor market. So the best technique of data collection was survey of
both married and unmarried females between the ages of 20 to 49.
Two models (probit and logit) were used to analyze the factors which
effect on FLFP. The result showed that some factors e.g. age;
education and marital status have significant effect on FLFP. The
findings showed that educated women and those who belong to joint
families are more participate because of financial pressure.
Women in the Teaching Profession: Impacts and Challenges
Recently in Malaysia, women's participation in teaching profession has increased. The increasing trend of women’s participation in the teaching profession poses challenges in families, especially in the developing countries like Malaysia. One of these challenges, concerns in balancing their role between family and job responsibility that faced by many women teachers. The purpose of this study is to discover how women teachers' impact on family happiness and the challenges faced by them in balancing their role between family and job responsibility. The findings presented in this study are based on survey research in a secondary school Dato’ Bijaya Setia in the district of Gugusan Manjoi which is located in Kedah, Malaysia. The study found that employment of women in economic activity has several beneficial impacts of improving the economic condition of the family. The results also revealed that in low income earning families, both husbands and wives’ employment contribute to the family income that less likely to experience of family poverty. The study also showed despite women's teachers’ significant role towards the overall development of the family, the majority of women teachers encountered a number of difficulties in balancing their role between family and job responsibility especially when they need to work more than the normal working time. Therefore, it is common for the majority of women suffering from psychological stress when they are unable to complete the task at a fixed time. The present study also suggests implication of family friendly policy and its appropriate practice to support the women teachers who are significantly contributing to family, community and the country.
Family History of Obesity and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis
The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of history of obesity for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, family history, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eleven studies of family history and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that family history of obesity is a significant risk factor of overweight and /or obesity in offspring; risk for offspring overweight and/or obesity associated with family history varies depending of the family members included in the analysis; and when family history of obesity is present, the offspring are at greater risk for developing obesity or overweight. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.
The Role of Identifications in Women Psychopathology
Family identification has the potential to play a very decisive role in psychopathology. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of family identifications on female psychopathology. A community sample of 101 women (mean age 20.81 years, SD = 0.91 ranged 20-25) participated to the present study. The girls completed a) the Symptom Check-List Revised (SCL-90) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for family identifications. The majority of women reported that they matched to the father in terms of identifications (47.1%). Age and birth order were not contributed on family identifications (F(5) =2.188, p=.062 and F(3)=1.244, p=.299 respectively). Multivariate analysis by using MANCOVA found statistical significant associations between family identifications and domains of psychopathology as provided by SCL-90 (P<05). Our results highlight the role of identifications especially on father and female psychopathology as well as replicate the Freudian perception about the female Oedipus complex.